Vaccination and Travel Information for Estonia

ESTONIA

 Information current as at:  February 2009 by The D2 Medical centre at No 1 Fitzwilliam Street Upper dublin 2 ph 6314500. The experts in travel vaccines Dublin 2


Climate: Estonia has a temperate climate, with warm summers and severe winters. Temperatures range from a summer average of 30°C to an average in winter of -8°C. Being on the Baltic Sea the country is subjected to sea breezes and humidity, and its northern latitude means long summer daylight hours (the longest summer day stretches to 19 hours), and dark winters when daylight lasts sometimes only six hours. The cold winter does not necessarily mean constant snow; in fact snowfalls are few and far between. There tends to be a layer of snow on the ground constantly between December and March. Summertime brings unexpected rain showers.
Temperate in Tallinn: warm summers (20-21 °C) and cold winters (0-3 °C).
Capital City: Tallinn
Altitude: 44 metres above sea level
Main Cities: Haapsalu, Kardla, Johvi, Paide, Parnu, Polva, Rapla, Tartu, Valga, Voru
Population: 1,332,893 (July 2005 est.)
Land Area (sq km): 45,226
Currency: Estonian kroon (EEK) = 100 sents
Languages: Estonian (official) 67.3%, Russian 29.7%, other 2.3%
Religions: Evangelical Lutheran 13.6%, Orthodox 12.8%, other Christian (including
Economy: Machinery and appliances, wood products, textiles, food products, metals



 The D2 Medical advises all travellers to be 'up-to-date' for:

CHOLERA Immunisation is neither required nor recommended.
DIPHTHERIA We recommend the initial childhood series of vaccinations in the first five years of life, with booster doses at ages 11 years, 45 years, and 65 years. Travellers are recommended to have the vaccine 10 yearly esp. if travelling to developing countries, or where there may be a risk of contracting the disease.

HEPATITIS 'A' Immunisation is recommended but not compulsory.


HEPATITIS ‘B’ Immunisation is recommended for travellers who will be in the area for 1 month or more.
Transmission of Hepatitis B is through sex or contact with contaminated blood, needles and syringes.


POLIO Adults who are travelling to areas where poliomyelitis cases are occurring, or where the contracting the disease is possible, and who have received a primary series with either IPV or OPV should receive another dose of IPV before departure. For adults, available data do not indicate the need for more than a single lifetime booster dose with IPV.



RABIES Immunisation is neither required nor routinely recommended for travellers, unless there is to be significant remote travel to rural areas or the traveller works with animals at risk for the disease.


TUBERCULOSIS (TB) Immunisation is not compulsory, and is not recommended for adults.
Children should be immunised at any age.
A skin test is available if immune status is in doubt.
TETANUS We recommend the initial childhood series of vaccinations in the first five years of life, with booster doses at ages 11 years, 45 years, and 65 years. Travellers are recommended to have the vaccine 10 yearly esp. if travelling to developing countries, or where there may be a risk of contracting the disease.
TYPHOID FEVER Immunisation is neither required nor routinely recommended.
YELLOW FEVER Immunisation is not required for travel to this country alone.

Tallinn, Estonia


Malaria is not present in any area of this country.




GENERAL
The quality of medical care in Estonia continues to improve but still falls short of Western standards. Estonia has many highly trained medical professionals, but hospitals and clinics still suffer form a lack of equipment and resources. Elderly travellers and those with health problems may be at increased risk. Most pharmaceuticals sold here are from Europe. Serious medical problems requiring hospitalisation and/or medical evacuation can cost thousands of dollars or more. Doctors and hospitals often expect immediate cash payment for health services.

HEALTH, ACCIDENTS AND INSURANCE
Accidents and injuries are the leading cause of death among travellers under the age of 55. Most are caused by motor vehicle and motorcycle crashes; and to a lesser degree, drowning, aircraft crashes, murders, and burns.

Heart attacks cause most fatalities in older travellers, but infections cause only 1% of fatalities in overseas travellers. Generally, infections are the most common cause of travel-related illness.

Travellers are advised to obtain, before departure, travel health insurance with specific overseas coverage. The policy should include a medical evacuation benefit. Check for any exclusions that are part of the policy, and keep in mind that many insurance policies have terrorism exclusion clauses. The D2 Medical recommends that the policy also provide 24-hour access to an assistance centre that can help arrange and monitor delivery of medical care, and determine if air ambulance services are required.

                                                                                                                                                  DR JOHN J RYAN MEDICAL DIRECTOR


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